The chronology of Egyptian dynasties

The (-) sign indicates Before Common Era

Prominent pharaoes = Some important pharaoes of dynasties - not all pharaoes are listed

PeriodDynastyStartEndProminent PharaoesConstruction
Early Dynastic Period of Egypt1-3100-3035  
Old Kingdom3-2686-2613DjoserStepped pyramids @ Saqqara
 4-2620-2500Khufu, Khafre, Menakaure3 Great Pyramids @ Giza, Sphinx
 5-2500-2345 Pyramids @ Saqqara
 6-2345-2181Pepi I & IIPyramids @ Saqqara
First Intermediate Period7-2181-2160  
Middle Kingdom of Egypt11-2125-1985Menuhotep I & II 
 12-1985-1773Senusret I, II, IIIPyramids @ Dashur, Karnak temple
Second Intermediate Period13-1803-1649  
New Kingdom of Egypt18-1550-1292Hatshepshut, Amenhotep I, II, III, Akhnaten, Thutmose I, II, III, IV, TutankhamunHatshepshut temple, Luxor temple, Colossi of Memnon, Medinet Habu
 19-1292-1189Rameses I, II, Seti I, IIValley of Kings, Abu Simbel
 20-1189-1077Rameses III to X 
Third Intermediate Period21-1069-945  
 25-744-656 Philae temple
Late Period of ancient Egypt26-664-525Xerxes I & II, Darius I & II 
 30-380-343 Kom Ombo temple
 31-343-332Darius III 
Greek Roman periodN/A-305-30Ptolemy, Cleopatra VIITemple of Edfu

Common questions

How many pyramids are in Egypt total?

Over 100 pyramids of different sizes have been identified so far. The most famous ones are in Giza, then at Saqqara and at Dashur.

Were pharaoes bad or good?

They considered themselves as God and connection between common people and heavenly world. So, they were very powerful and often did not hesitate crush anyone who challenged them. So, yes, mostly they were cruel.

Was there democracy in ancient Egypt?

Not at all. There was almost no social mobility either.

Why they created mummies?

They believed in afterlife. In fact, they spend more time in thinking about afterlife than their (then) present lives! Perhaps they should have enjoyed their lives more :-)

Can we create mummies nowadays?

Yes we can. However, how exactly ancient high priests created mummies were not discovered. So, even though we can make mummies no, there is no guarantee that it will be in similar condition (as of Egyptian mummies) after thousands of years later.

Why Tutankhamun was famous?

Only because his tomb was discovered intact with all jewelliers and organements. All other mummies discovered had most items missing over thousands of years.

Who was most famous pharaoe?

Most historians think it was Rameses II (aka Rameses the great).

How the pyramids were built?

There are many theories. Just search on internet. The exact method is still debatable.The most accepted theory so far is that they built ramps around the pyramids and dragged stones via those ramps. After the building completed they dismantled the ramps. Remnants of one such ramp was discovered in 2018.

Does anyone speak hieroglyphic nowadays?

The hieroglyphic was a script, not a language. Ancient Egyptian language was meant for praising kings and gods. It is difficult to use them on modern context. So it is not used nowadays.

Were there any women pharaoes?

Yes, there were few! Most notably Hatshepshut and Cleopatra VII.

What currency did they use?

True currency came much later in ancient Egypt. Before that they mostly traded using silver or gold or used a barter system.

What is the significance of Sphinx?

Sphinx is the guard of burial chambers. It has head of human to signify intelligence and body of lion to signify strength.

What are there in Valley of Kings?

It contains many tombs, where originally had mummies inside sacrophaguses. Still some of the tombs have drawings and stuff inside for visitors to see.

What ancient Egyptian monuments were made of?

Pyramids were built of limestones. Some temples were made of sandstones. Some other artefacts were made of granite.

How was life for common people in ancient Egypt?

Not great. Infant mortality was very high. Average life expectancy was just 35 years. People suffered from diseases and infections. Farmers had to pay taxes to plant crops in Pharoaes' lands. There was often compulsory unpaid labor (known as corvee) as per pharaoes' whims. Accident at work (often causing death) was common during great constructions.

So don't assume that your life would have been better if you were born those times. Unless you were born as pharaoe or member of royal family, your life would have been far worse compared to modern world.